Monthly Archives: October 2019

The Art of Extreme Testing

Objective:

Objective of a software development is to produce a error free product in less time with all effective manner so that which can satisfy the client. Always a Developer tries to write error free and runnable code. On the other hand a tester finds bugs in all possible ways. It may happen each time a product requires changes in features or modification in functionality. In order to get rid of all these problems Extreme Testing is really a ideal solution.

Basics:

Extreme Testing is based on Extreme Development. In this testing process no need of two developers rather a developer and a tester work as a team. The four important features of Extreme Programming are:

Simplicity–Always try to make simpler to meet current requirements.

Communication–Make sure that you are aware of the features and its role in the project. Otherwise communicate with all the features of the project soon.

Feedback–Provide information back to the programmer who produce the code when you find a problem with the code you are using.

Aggressiveness–Show your aggressiveness to a project even if any changes will not be made soon.

Extreme testing can be defined as achieving the target, increasing the testability and minimizing the variability of the system under the test. The extreme testing normally takes place at the developer workstation. In first step to Extreme testing, a formal test plan will be available at this point , but this process can work very well with free-form testing at such an early stage in the testing process.

Process:

Extreme testing starts with the Extreme Programming Project work. Design, Implementation and testing all happen together under Incremental Development. Then what will be our approach in such testing?Yes, its approach is little bit different from other type of testing. Extreme testing follows certain steps:

1. Test cases are written before coding and Unit test,End-to-End testing of each classes are done in this section.

2. A tester performs all types of testing as per user requirements.

3. Make sure that all unit tests should perform 100% at every time. All Unit

Tests must pass before a component is allowed to be integrated.

4. All Acceptance Tests must be properly documented.

5.All Acceptance Tests and Regression Tests must pass before a Release is made.

6. Automate any test when it makes sense and where it is possible.

The process begins with the tester in charge of the keyboard and the mouse, working with the system under test. When the tester finds something they think is an issue, they and the developer are immediately able to examine and discuss it – much more quickly coming to an understanding of the issue, and deciding together whether it is in fact a defect that needs to be fixed. This immediate discussion and shared understanding is something that will take much more time if it is done later as part of the formal testing process.

In this process, the developer will be able to quickly fix the problem, rebuild the system, and the tester will verify the fix immediately. The problem has been handled, does not need formal documentation, and testing can continue. In the early stages of testing, this happens more frequently than you might think – and the speed and productivity of this Extreme Testing is like lighting compared with the later and more formal testing process.

Benefits:

If we analyze this process we can get a number of benefits from Extreme Testing. Extreme testing keeps software soft. There is no fear of modification or change in software. Continuous testing process brings confidence to Developer. As code passes unit test ,it creates reliability on product and it also brings customer satisfaction. Knowledge exchange can be possible through code reviews. In this process the same bug can not be re-introduced. Whenever you are confident in code no need to test it more.

Do Extreme Diets Work?

All too often, you may be tempted by promises of a fast weight loss with very little effort. It’s time to consider whether these extreme diets actually work and whether they’re a good choice for you. Remember, the key to weight loss is that it lasts for a long time, decades if you do it right. You have to be sure that the extreme diet that you’re using won’t backfire on you and lead to a long term weight gain.

But what are extreme diets, anyway? How do you identify them?

Let’s say that a diet is extreme if it involves a drastic method of weight loss and promises that this will lead to a very fast reduction in weight. For instance, if a diet involves cutting your calories to 600 a day (and this is just an example as this number may vary) then you’re looking at a very low calorie diet. This may lead to weight loss but it will likely be mostly water weight. This will also lead to a slowdown in your metabolism and result in long term weight gain.

A diet may also be extreme if it involves eating the same kind of food over and over again. A diet with a single dominant food is not balanced and will not be healthy either. These diets usually hide the fact that they are simply low on calories and pretend that the food they focus on has some magical weight loss properties.

As I said, you can lose weight fast with extreme diets. However, this is likely to be made up of mostly water and not fat. In addition, these kinds of extreme diet plans are very hard to stick to for a long time. They are so restrictive and depriving that they can prove to be a real torment to do. If you’re looking for a long term solution, you need a routine that you can live with for weeks and maybe even months. Otherwise, you may lose weight but it won’t be enough to get you to your ultimate goal.

Extreme diets sound like a lot of fun. You tend to focus on the promise they hold: helping you to lose a lot of weight quickly. However, before you rush to do one of these diets, make sure that you know what it will really require of you, whether you’ll be able to handle it, and whether there are other, easier options.

Extreme Jealousy in a Relationship – How It Affects A Marriage

Before talking about extreme jealousy in a relationship, first, what is jealousy?

Jealousy in a relationship like marriage is a common human emotion. When married couples believe that they have exclusive ownership of their spouses, jealousy is normal between couples. It occurs when a spouse is threatened by a person who he or she believes is a rival. Spouses have this feeling of ownership towards their partners that they feel jealous or threatened when they believe a rival appears and might steal their precious spouse. Jealousy can either be based on real threats or imagined threats. It can be either healthy or unhealthy to a marriage.

Is Jealousy Bad?

Jealousy can be healthy and good in a marriage. If jealousy is constructive in a way that it makes couples to be more sensitive with each other’s feelings, to communicate more, to show more affection to each other and it reminds them of their love and commitment to each other, then it is good. A little jealousy is an affirmation that couples value and love each other so much that they don’t want to lose each other.

But if jealousy becomes extreme, irrational and threatens to destroy a marriage, then jealousy is bad. If one spouse irrationally believes that his or her spouse is unfaithful and mistakenly feels threatened by a rival who doesn’t exist, then the problem in the marriage comes in.

Extreme jealousy in a relationship occurs when one spouse compares himself or herself to others or to someone she or he perceives as a rival and eventually creates a feeling of inferiority, insecurity and inadequacy. The jealous spouse may also had a history of being abandoned or left behind by loved ones.

How extreme jealousy in a relationship affects a marriage?

Extreme jealousy in a relationship can result to a troubled marriage. Too many efforts are wasted on unnecessary jealousy. Irrational jealousy in a relationship leads to irrational thoughts and emotions resulting to unacceptable behavior. Extreme jealousy in a relationship produces a wide range of consequences from humiliation to violence. The jealous spouse may engage in unacceptable stalking behavior to investigate his or her suspicions which may include searching the spouse’s clothes and personal possessions like phones and social media accounts, personally interrogate spouse, surprise visits to work, unreasonable phone calls to work and some go to extreme lengths by hiring a private investigator or engage in violence to make their spouse confess.

People who are healthy become jealous only in the presence of real threats and their actions can be dictated by real evidences. They are not close minded and they can change or modify their reactions based on new information and evidences. While unhealthy people suffering from extreme jealousy believes that their spouses are unfaithful based on unfounded evidences. They refuse to change their beliefs or their minds even in the face of conflicting information showing their spouses are innocent. This kind of jealousy can ruin a marriage.

The partner of the jealous spouse can also develop anxiety and depression from being accused constantly or from having a troubled marriage. This extreme jealousy in a relationship can be really destructive to a marriage.

Extreme jealousy in a relationship can affect not only the marriage but also the couple’s children. The jealous spouse can go to extreme lengths of asking their children to spy on the accused parent to satisfy his or her suspicions. The couple’s children may become emotionally and physically abused if they constantly witness arguments and violence in their household.

As a whole extreme jealousy in a relationship like marriage is not healthy and can be destructive not only to the couples but also to their children. It is important to learn how to deal with extreme jealousy in a relationship and it is best for couples to seek professional help if their marriage is marred by irrational jealousy before it becomes too late.

Extreme Availability Where It Really Matters: The Financial Power of Integration

Extreme availability may become a competitive differentiator. Extreme availability must ensure applications can respond in under a second, whether it’s supporting a wireless trade on an exchange floor, transferring multi-billion dollar transactions across global infrastructures, or protecting the integrity of integrated applications through a secure infrastructure that extends to third parties.

The financial industry requirements for availability, reliability, scalability, and performance are well beyond what most Commercial Off-the-Shelf (COTS) software provides. Because of this, many financial institutions have developed applications in-house. However, when considering the scale, scope, and cost of changes needed to select, support, and integrate several applications, organizations have discovered the value of leveraging outside middleware to speed future development and decrease development and maintenance costs. With the development of extreme availability using commercially available middleware, organizations no longer must choose between their availability requirements or the development and maintenance benefits of standard middleware; they can reap the benefits of both.

Extreme availability is the ultimate form of high availability, when the desired goal is no outages at all because the perceived harm to the business is immeasurably large. How does this differ from high availability? While it might seem initially that the difference is relatively small, achieving extreme availability requires changes throughout the organization. Indeed, the scope of the changes is sufficiently large that it makes sense to think of the needed changes as a culture change. One way to think of extreme availability is to think of it as an “availability culture” added to a standard high-availability operation.

Availability Culture

In even the most carefully designed fault-tolerant system, there’ll be unexpected events. While these will be rare with careful planning, proper preparation and response are vital if outages are completely unacceptable. Organizations pursuing extreme availability pay close attention to people, culture, fault tolerance, upgrade procedures, testing, security, using mature software, documentation, and simplicity.

Businesses that seek extreme availability have a strong culture of reliability that emphasizes taking extra precautions and being ready for surprises. Extreme availability requires fanatical attention to possible single points of failure. In power, for example, the building should have two power feeds, coming in on opposite sides of the building, from separate power substations. Each feed should support an independent electrical distribution network inside the building. The outside power should be backed up by batteries, which are backed up by generators with enough fuel storage to last many days. Good planning might even secure multiple fuel delivery contracts with independent providers who would be available a week or so before the fuel store empties.

For hardware and/or software upgrades, extreme availability organizations use a gradual rollout process that lets them observe the upgrade in actual operation. This gradual rollout is coupled with a way to back out the upgrade if problems occur. This may impose additional system redundancy requirements on the design.

Redundancy and fault tolerance can protect against random errors, but not against systemic errors such as a programming mistake or improper hardware configuration. The only remedy for such problems is testing, which extreme availability organizations take seriously. Testing periods are never shortened. Frequently, there are multiple independent testing organizations, and each can stop deployment. Testing is normally not under development. Frequently, testers are rewarded by the number of defects found, which is exactly opposite from developers.

Security precautions address both physical security (site, building and machine room) and network security. When possible, the system should be isolated from the Internet. If Internet access is a key feature, then layered protection against penetration attacks is needed, as is a mechanism for handling denial of service attacks. Data integrity needs to be checked after failure recovery in the application.

Extreme availability organizations typically implement a higher-than-normal degree of isolation. Development networks may be fully independent of production networks and testing environments are fully independent of development and production.

Software is markedly different from hardware in the shape of its failure curve over time. New software is markedly more likely to fail than software used for several years. Many organizations therefore avoid all x.0 releases; some also avoid any commercial software until it has a track record with other organizations.

High availability relies on fault tolerance plus repair. Good monitoring is fundamental to understanding when there’s an otherwise transparent failure and repair is needed. Knowing what’s happening in the system also lowers the likelihood of a system administrator taking an inappropriate action.

Extreme availability requires complete documentation because people can be single points of failure, too. Even if you have several people cross-trained, you may find the backup is out sick while the primary is on vacation.

Simplicity, a watchword for most extreme availability organizations, means using the fewest pieces possible for the function needed because of the impact on the mean time between failures of additional components. It also means using simple administrative interfaces to lessen the chance of error in an emergency.

Extreme availability takes a high-availability system as a base and adds operations personnel with good skills handling emergencies and a strong culture of failure avoidance. While this may sound simple, it isn’t. Any culture change is difficult and the culture of high availability is unusual. It’s a difficult adjustment for many.

Achieving Extreme Availability

To achieve extreme availability, begin by developing guiding principles that set forth requirements in site and building architecture, network design and operation, system hardware and software, and procedures and guidelines for design, development, deployment, and operation.

There should be no single point of failure; this implies multiple levels of redundancy and replication, including full site duplication. Thorough testing is an imperative. A key operational requirement is a deployment process characterized by a gradual, well-managed rollout of application upgrades and the ability to immediately roll back an upgrade if a problem emerges. Most extreme availability organizations anticipate the new and old versions will run simultaneously in production for a while. Regular audits are required to ensure the data is equivalent in the old and new systems and that information isn’t lost if it’s necessary to roll back to the old system.

An application supporting a financial organization needs to be extremely reliable, fast, available and scalable. Few, if any, bugs should exist in production systems. Response time should be about a second or less for users. Highly available means no outages, which has significant implications in the overall system design. There must be two geographically separate sites working as hot backups for each other, which implies further implications for hardware and software, design, management and maintenance. Synchronizing dual sites presents challenges.

The problem is how to reliably upgrade an application given that the upgrade might fail and no downtime is acceptable. As part of the upgrade deliverable, developers provide the operations staff with a database verification routine that executes at the end of each day and ensures the current and new databases are equivalent.

Because the changes involved using vendor middleware potentially have such broad impact, financial organizations should take a gradual approach to deployment. Breaking the rollout into several stages supports strategic goals without compromising systems integrity. Hardware and software vary in reliability, so considerable care must be taken in the initial selection. Even the best components must be tested in the type of environment where they’re going to be used to validate the expected reliability and uncover compatibility issues. Testing failure recoveries during heavy loads is essential.

The testing methodology should involve causing individual components to fail in various ways and observing the recovery behavior. After the individual failures seem to be handled properly, multiple failover scenarios considered likely to occur are tested. In addition, various kinds of hardware failures must be tested. This includes failure of entire machines and key infrastructure components such as the disk subsystem and network interfaces.

Summary

Extreme availability-defined as ensuring as close to 100 percent uptime as possible-has become imperative for the global financial services industry as companies face increasing availability requirements and consider new alternatives to meet them. From a financial services viewpoint, extreme availability must ensure all applications can respond in under a second, whether it’s supporting a wireless trade, transferring multi-billion dollar transactions, or protecting the integrity of the integrated applications through a secure infrastructure.